Presentation

Quelques perspectives pour les débats

Le numérique a bouleversé la donne en matière de produits et services éducatifs et culturels, de pratiques culturelles des jeunes, de positionnement des institutions éducatives et bien sûr de compétences à acquérir pour agir en citoyen dans la société de la connaissance. Face à ce nouvel environnement éducatif, il pourrait s’agir d’élaborer une nouvelle media literacy, voire de nouveaux types de literacies, intégrant le profond changement que constitue le passage de l’état de lecteur (de texte, de sons, d’images) à celui d’acteur.
Le concept clé de l’éducation aux médias ne serait plus alors la représentation (ce que nous connaissons du monde passe pour l’essentiel par la représentation que les médias en donnent), mais plutôt la communication. Avec le développement des différentes pratiques de storytelling (à travers le jeu, les réseaux sociaux ou les plate-formes de blogging, et la construction d’identités virtuelles ou d’avatars), l’éducation aux médias devrait prendre davantage en compte la notion de fictional based media, à côté de l’approche traditionnelle de information based media. Il s’agirait alors de redéfinir les types de compétences à acquérir en fonction des types de literacy visés.

On constate aujourd’hui dans la plupart de nos pays une série de fossés que l’école peine à prendre en compte. Fossé intergénérationnel, fossé entre l’école et la maison, fossé entre éducateurs aux médias et pratiques TIC orientées métier.
- Le fossé intergénérationnel demande à être réinterrogé. Si dans de nombreux pays européens, les systèmes éducatifs lancent de vastes campagnes de dotations d’ordinateurs portables destinés à un usage à la maison comme à l’école, ou la mise en place de plate-formes (espaces numériques de travail, ENT) censées faciliter la communication entre les familles et l’école, des études montrent les limites de ces réponses institutionnelles. Il s’agirait plutôt de considérer les nouvelles pratiques sociales, en particulier celles du jeu vidéo et du web participatif : induisent-elles, comme certaines recherches semblent l’indiquer en Italie, de nouvelles relations à l’intérieur de la famille autour de compétences et d’appétences partagées ?
- La recherche européenne Mediappro a montré à quel point les jeunes considéraient l’école et la maison comme deux univers séparés et totalement hétérogènes pour ce qui est de leurs pratiques des TIC. Ce fossé pénalise fortement les transferts d’apprentissage, et plus largement une maîtrise raisonnée, responsable et autonome par les jeunes des dispositifs TIC existant et à venir.
- On remarque dans beaucoup de nos pays une quasi impermabilité entre deux approches du numérique dans l’éducation (référence Andrew), qui renouvelle l’opposition bien connue entre éducation aux médias et éducation par ou avec les médias. D’un côté, issue des arts et de la culture, l’éducation aux médias aborde le média à la fois comme un objet d’étude spécifique et comme un objet culturel ; à ce titre, les mondes virtuels ou les jeux vidéos ne sont-ils pas des objets artistiques et culturels qui peuvent être étudiés au même titre que la littérature ? De l’autre côté, issue des sciences et de l’information, l’approche TICE s’intéresse à ces médias comme à des outils et des ressources au service des apprentissages, privilégiant l’approche métiers, en particulier autour des concepts de pratiques ou d’apprentissage instrumentés. Face au risque de développement de voies parallèles, un des défis qui se pose aux systèmes éducatifs pourrait consister à établir des voies transversales entre ces deux approches des TIC.

Quelles voies les recherches actuelles sur l’appropriation de ces médias électroniques par les jeunes ouvrent-elles aux éducateurs ?
Quelles pratiques éducatives seraient susceptibles de favoriser non seulement une réelle maîtrise des outils et des ressources, mais surtout de développer à la fois la créativité et la réflexion critique dans les usages des médias numériques ?
Entre l’intégration de formes de jeux véhiculant des valeurs positives, acceptables par une société donnée, et le rejet à la sphère privée de formes plus anarchiques (référence), comment l’école se situe-t-elle face à ces nouvelles pratiques et ces nouveaux objets de la culture populaire que sont les jeux vidéos, le web participatif et les réseaux sociaux ?
Le concept de créativité, sur lequel peuvent se retrouver les TICE et l’éducation aux médias, ne risque-t-il pas occulter d’autres concepts clés de ces nouvelles formes de literacies, l’approche critique comme l’approche culturelle ?

Experts: Isabelle Brèda, Pier Cesare Rivoltella, Andrew Burn, Nelson Zagalo, Faro 2008.


Perspectives to debate

ICTs have deeply changed the situation in terms of educative and cultural products et services, youth’s cultural practices, educationnal entities’ positioning and of course essential competences that young people have to master in order to act as a citicizen in the knowledge society. In front of this new educational environment, what is at stake could be elaborating a new media literacy, even new types of literacies, integrating the profound modification constituted by the transition from the state of reader (of texts, sounds, images) to the state of actor.
The key concept of media education would no more be representation (what we know about the world mainly comes through what mass media tell us), but rather communication. With the development of storytelling practices (through games, social networks or blogging platforms and through the building of virtual identities or avatars), media education has to emphazise the concept of fictional based media, beside the traditional information based media approach. Therefore we should have to redefine types of skills according to the different types of literacies.

Observations and studies have showed a series of gaps that school hardly takes into account: intergenerational gap, gap between home and school, gap between media educators /media education approach and ICT teachers / job-based teachers’ practices.
- The intergenerational gap has to be re-observed. If in numerous European countries, educational systems launch huge campaigns of laptops distribution designed for both school and home use (with a recent example in Portugal), or of digital platforms supposed to facilitate the communication between families and school, many studies show the limits of these institutional responses. New social practices could change the intergeneration relationships context : some research results seam to indicate, in Italy, that video games and participatory web uses could favour the sharing of competences and appetences within the family.
- Mediappro research results showed at what point young people consider home and school as two separated universes in terms of digital media uses. This gap strongly restricts learning transfers, and in a wider sense the development of a cautious, responsable and autonomous control by young people of ICT devices that are existing or will exist.
- In many countries, we can note a quite complete lack of porosity between two educational digital media approaches, which could revitalize the well-known opposition between education about media and education through media. On the one hand (Andrew’s reference), resulting from the arts and culture trend, media education considers the media as a cultural object as such ; according to this trend, aren’t virtual worlds or video games artistic and cultural objects that have to be studied at the same level as litterature ? On the other hand, resulting from sciences and information trend, ICT approach considers these media as tools and resources that serve learning and teaching, with a focus on a job-based approach through the concepts of instrumented teacher practices ou instrumented student learning. In front of the risk of development of parallel trends, one of the challenges for educational systems may consist in establishing transversal paths between these two ICT approaches.

- Which ways do recent research results about media appropriation pave for educators?
- Which educational practices could not only favor a real mastery of digital tools and resources, but above all develop both creativity and critical thinking in the digital media usage?
- Between the integration of progressive forms of play into educational process and the rejection of anarchic forms to the private sphere, what could be the role of school in front of these new practices and new objects (video games, participatory web and social networks) belonging to the popular culture?
- Is there a risk that the concept of creativity, which could bring together ICT in education and media education, eclipses other key concepts of these new literacies, such as critical and cultural approaches ?

Isabelle Bréda, october 2008

The Faro seminar asked us to consider the question of ludology in relation to media literacy. This seems to me to raise four questions for media educators to consider.
Firstly, ludology suggests in general terms theories of play, and how they might apply to media education. For me, a relevant model here would be Brian Sutton-Smith’s book The Ambiguity of Play, which suggests different, and often conflicting, rhetorics of play. The rhetoric most comfortable for educators and parents is his idea of ‘progressive play’, meaning safe, pro-social, developmental play. When we study media texts in the curriculum, or bring them into the home, teachers and parents are more likely to feel comfortable with films or games that fit this category. However, the Mediappro and Educaunet results show us that young people are not only attracted to risk, but that it is an essential feature of their growth. In this case, we need to consider media texts which fit better under Sutton-Smith’s categories of chaotic, anarchic, risky play – his rhetorics of Phantasmagoria and Fate.

Secondly, ludology is, as it has been proposed by Gonzalo Frasca and others, the study of games. It reminds us that media education proposes learning about the media, rather than learning through the media. If we have previously made the case for learning about important cultural forms such as films and comicstrips, we must now make the case for learning about games.

Thirdly, the field of ludology brings with it a conceptual framework which is different from the ones media educators have been used to applying to older media, especially film and television. In relation to the understanding and design of games (and we should introduce school students to both, as Nelson says), it involves key concepts such as ‘rules’ and ‘economies’; and the grammar of games is a grammar based on conditionality. Our research with game design software and children has shown that these new concepts not only gives them new understandings of computer games as a cultural and textual form; but extends their existing of narrative structures in older media.

Fourthly, and more generally, a ludic approach to the media cultures of children and young people reminds us that these cultures are dominated by imaginative fictions, fantasy, roleplay (whether in MMORPGs or more generally in the participatory internet). These cultures are very different from the world of online information imagined by many educators and policymakers (though it is true that teachers and parents may well inhabit such cultures, but lack the pedagogic frameworks to include them in educational programmes, as Pier Cesare has argued). There is a danger that media literacy policy and practice, therefore, is being driven by instrumental requirements to teach children to decode information (this is the culture of ICT education as Isabella has referred to it); when in fact we should be helping them to navigate imaginary worlds, roles, narratives and dreams. Media Literacy is not the same as digital literacy or e-learning – and a ludological approach should help us to make this distinction stronger.

Experts: Andrew Burn, Nelson Zagalo, Pier Cesare Rivoltella, Isabelle Brèda, Faro 2008.


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Organisators

Média AnimationUniversity of the Algarve
Le ClemiZaffiria

Partners Congress

Evens Foundation  PEGI
European Newspaper Publishers' Association  Media Coach

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